Alexander Deineka

1899 - 1969

country: Russia

Alexander Aleksandrovich Deineka was born in Kursk on May, 8th (20), 1899 , in railroader family. He educated the prime art formation in Kharkov Art College (1915-1917). His youth as youth his many contemporaries, was devoted to revolution events. In 1918 it worked as the photographer in Criminal Investigation Department, managed section of the Art of Regional Educaational Department, designed campaigned trains, became involted in the defense of Kursk. In 1919-1920 Deineka was in the army where he managed art studio in Kursk Political Department and " Windows of ROSTA" in the same town.

From army he was sand on official trip to study to Moscow, in VHUTEMAS in the polygraphic department where his teachers were V.A. Favorsky and I.I. Nivinsky (1920-1925). His communication with V.A.Favorskiy and meetings with V.V. Maiyakovsky had great importance in his creative formation and forming of disposition during all years of studies. His creative character was represented in his works on the first exhibition in 1924? where he participated in the "Group of three" (together A.D. Goncharov and J.I. Pimenov), and on the First Discussion Exhibition of Union Active Revolutionary Art. In 1925 Deineka was one of the founders of Stander's Society (OST). Then the first Sovetic original monumental historic-revolutionary picture «Defense of Petrograd» (1928) was made by him.

In 1928 Deineka became the member of art association "October", and in 1931-1932 he became the member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Artists. In 1930 he created expressive in the color and composite attitude posters «We are Mechanize Donbas», «Sportwoman». In 1931 the pictures and a water-colours were which were different on the mood and general feeling:«On the balcony», «A girl at a window. Winter», «The interventionist's mercenary».

The new important period his creativ work had begun in 1932. The picture «Mother» had been the most considerable work that period of time. In those years the artist created: «Night landscape with horses and dry grasses» (1933), «The swimming girls» (1933), «Middday» (1932) and others.

They were the works of of art as darind in their newness and poetical contents. At the same time the social and political work of art: «The unemployeds in Berlin» (1933), the figures filled by anger to the novel «Fire» of A. Barbuse (1934).

With the middle 1930s Deineka was taken a great modern themes. He used the theme of avation ("Parachuters above the sea", 1934), but his work with illustrations for children book of pilot G.F. Baidukov "Over the pole to America " (was published in 1938) was promoted that the master was teken an interest in aviation. On of them was the most romantic work «Future pilots» (1937).

The historical theme was founded own reflection in his monumental works devoted to the pre-revolutionary history. The sketches of panels were made by the artist for exhibitions in New-York and Paris. "Left March" (1941) is concerned to the considerable works of the ending 1930s - the beginning 1940s.

In during World War II Deineka created the strained and dramatic pictures : "Surburb of Moscow. November, 1941 " ( 1941) is the first picture in that line. The other picture "The burned village" (1942) is penetrated through the great suffering. In 1942 the artist created the big picture "Defense of Sevastopol" (1942) filled with heroic enthusiasm and it became as a hymn of courage for defenders of the town.

The pictures "Near the sea." (1956), "Moscow. The time of War", "In Sevastopol" (1959) and also mosaics for the foyer of the Moscow University Assembly Hall (1956), the mosaics for the foyer of the Congress Palace in the Moscow Kremlin. His mosaic works are decorated the metro stations "Mayakovakaya" (1938) and "Novokuznetskaya" (1943) in Moscow. He was rewarded with Lenin Prize for the mosaics "Fine morning" (1959-1960) and "Hockey Players" (1959-1960)in 1964.

Deineka was a lecture in the High Art Institute (VHUTEIN) in 1928-1930, in Poligrafic Institute(1928-1934), in the Arts Institute named in honour of V. I. Surikov (1934-1946, 1957-1963), in the Institute of Applied and Decorative Arts (1945-1953, he was a director before 1948), in the Architectural Institute (1953-1959). He was a member of presidium (since 1958), a vice- president (1962-1966), an academician-secretary (1966-1968) of the Decorative Arts Department of the Arts Academy of the USSR.

He was awarded with Order of Lenin and Order of the Red Banner of Labour and many medals. He was Hero of Socialist Labour.

A. Deineka dead in Moscow in June 12, 1969 and was buried on the Novodevichie cemetery.

  • 1899 - Deineka was born in Kursk, in family of the worker-railwayman. Studied in railway school and simultaneously visited art studio.

  • 1915–1917 – study in the Kharkov Art College.

  • 1918 – comes back to Kursk, works as the photographer, makes out revolutionary holidays, designed campaigned trains, theatrical performances

  • 1919–1920 – Red Army and supervises over art studio.

  • 1921–1925 – studies at polygraphic faculty VHUTEMAS at V.A. Favorsky.
    With 1924 starts to cooperate actively as the artist in magazines. One of organizers Stander's Society (OST).

  • 1929 – leaves OST, enters Art Union "October". He illustrates children's books, manages a section of the poster in Polygraphic Institute

  • 1932 – draws a monumental panel "Civil aircraft".

  • 1934 – creative trip to Sevastopol.

  • 1935 – creative business trip to the USA, France, Italy. Coming back, draws big series cycle of water-colors and pictures.

  • 1937 – the Gold Medal of the World Art Exibition in Paris for the panel "Noble people USSR".

  • 1938 – a mosaic series "A day and night of Soviet sky" in the metro station "Mayakovskaya".

  • 1939 – painting of plafond for restaurant of the Central Theatre of the Soviet Army.

  • 1942 – after trip on the front he creates the graphic series "Roads of war".

  • 1945 – in May creative trip to Berlin.

  • 1947 – a title of member of the Art Academy USSR is awarded him.

  • 1947–1953 – he works as a sculptor with wood, a majolica, bronze, cement. He creates the mosaic portraits of great scientists of the world for a new building of Moscow University.

  • 1958 – comes back in the Moscow Art Institute it. V.I. Surikova, supervises over a monumental workshop.

  • 1959 – works above a series of mosaics.

  • 1960 – the main artist of construction of the Kremlin palace of congresses.

  • 1965 – makes out a mosaic a facade of sanatorium in Sochi. A trip to Italy.

  • 1969 – the personal exhibition in halls of the Academy of Arts on June, 5th opens.

  • 1969 – on June, 12th Alexander Aleksandrovich Dejneka has died in Moscow.